Julius Laboratory

Department of Biological Sciences




Reid A, Buchanan F, Julius M, Walsh PJ. 2021. A review on diatom biosilicification and their adaptive ability to uptake other metals into their frustules for potential application in bone repair. J Mater Chem B. doi: 10.1039/d1tb00322d.

Alverson, A.J., Chafin, T.K., Jones, K.A.  Manoylov, K.M., Johnson, H., Julius, M.L., Nakov, T., Ruck, E.C., Theriot, E.C., Yaeger, K.M., Stone, J.M. 2021. Microbial biogeography through the lens of exotic species: the recent introduction and spread of the freshwater diatom Discostella asterocostata in the United States. Biol Invasions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-021-02497-5.

Han, R., Julius, M.L., Buchanan, F., Walsh, P. 2021. DiaFilament Extrusion of Bioresorbable PDLGA for Additive Manufacturing utilizing Diatom Biosilica to inhibit process-induced thermal degradation, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 116, 104265, ISSN 1751-6161,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104265.



Han, R., Buchanan, F., Ford, Julius, M. Walsh, P. 2021. A comparison of the degradation behaviour of 3D printed PDLGA scaffolds incorporating bioglass or biosilica. Materials Science & Engineering C. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111755


Stapleton, C.A., Haywick, D.W., Julius, M.L., Novoveská , L., & Valentine, J.F.  2020 How anthropogenic activities impacted Polecat Bay near Mobile, Alabama, USA: a paleoecological study and forensic investigation. Environmental Forensics. DOI: 10.1080/15275922.2020.1836073


McDowell, D., Dick, J. TA., Eagling, L., Julius, M., Sheldrake, G. N., Theodoridou, K., & Walsh, P. J. 2020. Recycling Nutrients from Anaerobic Digestates for the cultivation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum: A Feasibility study. Journal of Algal Research, 48, [101893]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.101893


Dickey JWE, Cuthbert RN, South J, Britton JR, Caffrey J, Chang X, Crane K, Coughlan NE, Fadaei E, Farnsworth KD, Ismar-Rebitz SMH, Joyce PWS, Julius M, Laverty C, Lucy FE, MacIsaac HJ, McCard M, McGlade CLO, Reid N, Ricciardi A, Wasserman RJ, Weyl OLF, Dick JTA. 2020. On the RIP: using Relative Impact Potential to assess the ecological impacts of invasive alien species. NeoBiota 55: 27-60. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.55.49547


Ide Y, Matsukawa Y, Miyashiro D, Mayama S, Julius ML, Umemura K. 2020. Unique observation method of temperature dependence of diatom floating by direct microscope. J Microbiol Methods. 2020 Mar;172 105901. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105901. PMID: 32199876.




Walsh, P. J., Fee, K., Clarke, S. A., Julius, M., & Buchanan. 2018. Blueprints for the Next Generation of Bioinspired and Biomimetic Mineralised Composites for Bone Regeneration. Marine Drugs, 16(8), 288. http://doi.org/10.3390/md16080288


Julius, M.L. 2018. Chapter 6 - Carbohydrate Diversity in Microalgae: A Phylogenetically Arranged Presentation, pp. 133-144, IN Ira A. Levine & Joël Fleurence (eds.), Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, Academic Press,2018, ISBN 9780128114056, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811405-6.00006-2.




Maserati, A., Fink, R.C.,  Lourenco, A., Julius, M.L. and Diez-Gonzalez, F. 2017. General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival. PloS One 12 (11), e0187692


Walsh, P. J., Clarke, S. A., Julius, M., & Messersmith, P. B. 2017. Exploratory Testing of Diatom Silica to Map the Role of Material Attributes on Cell Fate. Scientific Reports, 7, 14138. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13285-4


Adams, L.A., Essien, E.R., Adesalu, T.A., Julius, M.L. 2017. Bioactive glass 45S5 from diatom biosilica. Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices. DOI:10.1016/j.jsamd.2017.09.002


Adesalu, T.A., and Julius, M.L. 2017. First observation of Spicaticribra from Africa, with a comment on nomenclatural and taxonomic status. Diatom Research. 32: 359-362 DOI: 10.1080/0269249X.2017.1358671


Adesalu, T.A., and Julius, M.L. 2017. Discostella oyanensis, sp. nov., a new planktonic diatom species from Nigeria, West Africa. Diatom Research. DOI:10.1080/0269249X.2017.1338621


O’Leary, M.A., Alphonse, K., Arce H. M., Cavaliere, D., Cirranello, A., Dietterich, T.,  Julius, M., Kaufman, S., Law, E., Passarotti, M., Reft, A., Robalino, J., Simmons, N.B., Smith, S., Stevenson, S., Theriot, E., Velazco, P.M., Walls, R., Yu, M., and Daly. M. 2017. Crowds Replicate Performance of Scientific Experts Scoring Phylogenetic Matrices of Phenotypes. Systematic  Biolology DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syx052




Adesalu T.A., Temenu T.O., and Julius M.L. 2016. Molecular characterization, lipid analysis and GC-MS, determination of bioactive compounds identified in a West African strain of the green alga Oedogonium (Chlorophyta). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 5(6): 01-06




Saito-Kato, M., Tanimura, Y., Mori, S., and Julius, M.L. 2015. Morphological evolution of Stephanodiscus (Bacillariophyta) in Lake Biwa from a 300ka fossil record. Journal of Micropaleontology 34: 165-179.


Nakov, T., Guillroy, W.X., Julius, M.L., Theriot, E.C., and Alverson, A.J. 2015. Towards a phylogenetic classification of species belonging to the diatom genus Cyclotella (Bacillariophyceae): Transfer of species formerly placed in Puncticulata, Handmannia, Pliocaenicus and Cyclotella to the genus Lindavia. Phytotaxa 217: 249-264.


Kociolek, J.P.,Theriot, E.C., Williams, D.M., Julius, M.L., Stoermer, E.F., Kingston, J.C. 2015.·Chapter: 15: Centric and Araphid Diatoms, pp.653-708 In: John Wehr, Robert Sheath, J. Patrick Kociolek, eds. Freshwater Algae of North America, 2nd Edition, Academic Press.




Tuji, A., Mohri, Y., Ki, J., Jung, S.W., and Julius, M.L. 2014. Phylogeny of Praestephanos gen. nov. (Thalassiosirales,Bacillariophyceae) based on Stephanodiscus suzukii, and related freshwater thalassiosiroid diatoms. Plankton Benthos Res 9: 132–140.




Yost, C., Blinnikov, M., and Julius, M.L. 2013. Phytoliths indicate presence of wild rice in lake cores: a modern sediment study in three Minnesota lakes. Journal of Paleolimnology. 49: 221-236.


Burleigh, J.G., Alphonse, K., Alverson, A.J., Bik, H.M., Blank, C., Cirranello, A.L., Cui, H., Daly, M., Dietterich, T.G., Gasparich, G., Irvine, J., Julius, M., Kaufman, S., Law, E., Liu, J., Moore, L., O'Leary, M.A., Passarotti, M., Ranade, S., Simmons, N.B., Stevenson, D.W., Thacker, R.W., Theriot, E.C., Todorovic, S., Velazco, P.M., Walls, R.L., Wolfe, J.M., Yu, M. 2013. Next-generation phenomics for the Tree of Life. PLOS Currents Tree of Life. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.085c713acafc8711b2ff7010a4b03733.




Hawryshyn, J., Ruhland, K.M, Julius, M.L., and Smol, J. 2012. Absence of Evidence is Not Evidence of Absence: Is Stephanodiscus binderanus (Bacillariophyceae) an Exotic Species in the Great Lakes Region. Journal of Phycology. 48: 270-274.




 Alverson, A.J., Beszteri, B., Julius, M.L., and Therirot, E.C. 2011. The model marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is the ancestrally freshwater diatom Cyclotella nana. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 125.


Mayama, S., Katoh, K., Ohmori, H., Seino, S., Osaki, H., Julius, M.L., Lee, J.H., Cheong, C., Lobo, E.A., Witkowski, A., Srivibool, R.,Muangphra, P., Jahn, R., and Kulikovsky, M. 2011. Progress toward Construction of an International Web-based Educational System Featuring Improved SimRiver for Understanding of the River Environment. Asian Journal of Biology Education. 5: 2-14.




Hoffer, J., Mayama, S., Lingle, K, Conroy, K, and Julius, M.L. 2010.SimRiver, Environmental Modeling Software for the Secondary Science Classroom. Science Scope


Julius, M.L. and Theriot, E.C. 2010. The Diatoms: A Primer. Chapter 2. In: Stoermer E.F. and Smol J. eds. The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. Cambridge University Press.


Blob, R., Kawano, S.M., Moody, K.N., Bridges, W.C., Maie, T., Ptacek, M., Julius, M.L., and Shoenfuss, H.L. 2010. Morphological selection and tradeoffs between escape from predators and the climbing of waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni. Integrative and Comparative Biology 50(6):1185-99




Painter, M.M., Burkley, M.A., Julius, M.L., Vajda, A., Norris, D.O., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Schultz, M.M., and Schoenfuss, H.L. 2009. Antidepressants at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Affect Predator Avoidance Behavior of Larval Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28: 2677-2684.


McGee, M.R., Julius, M.L., Vajda, A., Norris, D.O., Barber, L.B., and Schoenfuss, H.L. 2009. Predator Avoidance Performance of Larval Fathead MInnows (Pimephales promelas) Following Short-Term Exposure to Estrogen Mixtures. Aquatic Toxicology 91: 355-361.


Schoenfuss, H.L., Martinovic, D., Levitt, J.T., Rai, R., and Julius, M.L. 2009. Adverse Effects of Sewage Effluent Discharge on Sperm Motility in Fish. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 56: 397-408.




Blob, R.W., Bridges, W.C., Ptacek, M.B., Maie, T., Cediel, R.A., Bertolas, M.M., Julius, M.L., and Schoenfuss, H.L. 2008. Morphological selection in an extreme flow environment: body shape and waterfall-climbing success in the Hawaiian stream fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni. Integrative and Comparative Biology 48:734-749.




Julius, M.L. 2007. Perspectives on the evolution and diversification of the diatoms. pp. 1-13In Pond Scum to Carbon Sink: Geological and Environmental Applications of the Diatoms, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 27, 2007. Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 13, Starratt, S. (Ed.). Copyright © 2007 The Paleontological Society.


Julius, M.L., J. Stepanek, O. Tedrow, C., and H.L. Schoenfess. 2007. Estrogen-receptor independant effects of two ubiquitous environmental estrogens on Melosira varians Agardh, a common component of the aquatic primary production community. Aquatic Toxicology 85: 19-27.


Blob, R., Wright, K., Becker, M., Maie, T,, Iverson, T., Julius, M.L. and Schoenfuss, H.L.2007. Ontogenetic Change in Novel Functions: Waterfall Climbing in Adult Hawaiian Gobiid Fishes. Journal of Zoology 273: 200-209


Julius, M.L. 2007. Why sweat the small stuff: the role of microalgae in sustaining Hawaiian ecosystem integrity. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 3: 183–193.




Julius, M.L., Curtin, M., and Tanaka, H. 2006. Stephanodiscus kusuensis, sp. nov a new Pleistocene diatom from Southern Japan. Phycological Research 54:294-301.


Julius, M.L. and Schoenfuss H.L. 2006. Phylogenetic reconstruction as a broadly applicable teaching tool in the biology classroom: The value of data in estimating likely answers. Journal of the College Science Teacher July/ August: 40-45.




Blob, R.W., Rai, R., Julius, M.L. and Schoenfuss H.L. 2005. Functional diversity in extreme environments: effects of locomotor style and substrate texture on the waterfall climbing performance of Hawaiian gobiid fishes. Journal of Zoology 268: 315-324.


Julius, M.L. Blob, R., and Schoenfuss, H.L. 2005. The survival of Sicyopterus stimpsoni, an endemic amphidromous Hawaiian gobiid fish, relies on the hydrological cycles of streams: evidence from changes in algal composition of diet through growth stages. Aquatic Ecology 39: 473-484.





Schoenfuss, H.L., Julius, M.L., and R. Blob. 2004. Colonization of a recent, volcanically formed freshwater habitat: an example of primary succession. Icthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 15: 83-90.




Stoermer, E.F. and Julius, M.L. 2003. Centric Diatoms. Chapter 11 In: Wehr, J.D. and Sheth, R.G. (eds.), Freshwater Algae of North America: Classification and Ecology. Academic Press, San Diego.




Budd, J.W., W.C. Kerfoot, S. Green, and M.L. Julius. 2002. Donuts in the Desert? Winter Production in Lake Michigan Shows Unexpected Vertical Structure. Backscatter. Spring/ Summer.




Julius, M.L. and Tanimura, Y. 2001.  Cladistic analysis of plicated Thalassiosira (Bacillariophyceae). Phycologia 40: 111-122.




Julius, M.L., E.F. Stoermer, C.M. Taylor, and C.L. Schelske. 1998. Local extinction of Stephanodiscus niagarae Ehrenb. (Bacillariophyta) in the recent limnological record of Lake Ontario. Journal of Phycology 34: 766-771.




Julius, M.L., G.F. Estabrook, M.B. Edlund, and E.F. Stoermer. 1997. Recognition of taxonomically significant clusters near the species level, using computationally intensive methods, with examples from the Stephanodiscus niagarae species complex (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 33: 1049-1054.


Julius, M.L., E.F. Stoermer, S.M. Colman, and T.C. Moore. 1997. A preliminary investigation of siliceous microfossil succession in late Quaternary sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia. Journal of Paleolimnology 18: 187-204.




Stoermer, E.F., Emmert, G., Julius, M.L., and Schelske, C.L. 1996. Paleolimnologic evidence of rapid recent change in Lake Erie's trophic status. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 1451-1458.


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Julius Laboratory

Department of Biological Sciences

St. Cloud State University


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